Table of Contents
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Dyslexia describes a disorder in which a person has difficulty understanding language and/or reading. Rudolf Berlin created the term dyslexia in 1887 to describe a condition where an individual’s inability or inability read. He distinguished between brain injury (alexia), and brain damage (dyslexia). Berlin then turned his attention to the two main types, acquired and developmental dyslexia, of the effects of a psychological trauma (Wager, 1973). Understanding the differences is key to understanding how they affect individuals.
Acquired or acquired dyslexia is the term for a reading disorder that has been caused by brain damage. Developmental dyslexia happens when a person (often a young child) develops a reading disability due to developmental issues. This condition affects the individual’s ability to read, write, spell, and understand language. It is important to understand that dyslexia can’t control your visual ability or intelligence. Reading is complex and can result in reading difficulties. Different types of dyslexia may affect different individuals. Reading requires two processes. Max Coltheart’s 1978 dual-route model demonstrates this. This model shows how one reads words and letters from print to understand how to make phonation and speech. The left-hand side shows the entire word aspect of reading. It includes the recognition and interpretation of the word’s meaning. This then produces speech. The non lexical (right-handside) is linked to the lettersound rules. This is an examination of an individual’s abilities to work in letters and sounds. Ziegler (2008).
Case study description: The case study selected “A study of developmental phonological Dyslexia” by Temple & Marshall (1983) is about H.M. whose ability to read is carefully analyzed in order for her to be understood. This allowed researchers to analyze her test results and draw conclusions. H.M., a 17-year old girl with good intelligence, has a reading age between 10 and 11 months. Her difficulty with non-word-reading is much more difficult than word-reading. In other words, she can’t understand long non-words. This can be seen in her inability to recognize words that are too blurred to allow for global perception. H.M.’s phonological problems are what the case study is mainly about.
H.M. was found to have similar characteristics and features to other cases. H.M. is a developmental phonologically dyslexic, according to the case study. The case study starts with context and details about dyslexia. The focus then turns on the case report where more detail on the subject is given, and intelligence/capabilities/abilities are explained and compared to those of the average child e.g. H.M. scores on the verbal as well as performance tests. H.M.’s analysis is broken down into sub-categories, such as non-wordreading’, word reading’, and ’spelling and/or writing’ (Temple & Marshall 1983).
This case study explains the reasons for H.M. being given various tests. This case study allows readers to compare H.M.’s specific case of phonological Dyslexia to other cases or types. Cognitive theory description Coltheart developed the dual-route theory, which is a universal model that cognitive scientists, psychologists and sociologists use to better understand reading and impairments. This model shows how two main routes (lexical or non-lexical), explain the process by which an individual first sees and identifies printed letters and then produces speech sounds.
Reading impairments occur when one or more routes are affected. The two main routes have two conditions: phonological or non-lexical route and surface dyslexia/lexical route. The lexical path consists three key components that help an individual produce speech. Access to the word store is the first step. This contains familiar words and their recognition. The individual will be able to access a library of knowledge and memory that can help him or her construct the letters. A condition called surface dyslexia, wherein the individual has difficulty reading whole words (i.e. sight vocabulary). After that is access to a word meaning library.
Once the spoken word store is completed, the individual can link the meaning and familiarity of a word to its pronunciation to produce speech. The non-lexical path consists of just one component: letter-sound regulations. Producing speech is a result of the ability to sound out letters and create words using letter-sound rules. Understanding the meaning of the letters ‘d, o, and g form the word dog’ in their phonic sense is one example. This process is called phonologically dyslexic, or a deficit in the dual-route model. It’s characterized by poor knowledge of letter sound rules and poor non-lexical comprehension. This is apparent in people who have difficulty reading nonsense words. They tend to interpret these words as the closest similar-looking words. These are called “lexicalization mistakes”.
Evidence H.M. has been diagnosed with a developmental-phonological dyslexic. The condition is a result of a problem in her non-lexical pathway. She is having trouble with her grapheme/phoneme rules, which hinders her ability to understand the relationship between letters and their sounds. Phonological disorders are caused by poor understanding of letter-sound rules. Phonological dyslexics are people who have difficulty reading nonsense words, as opposed to words.
H.M. had poor nonword reading abilities. H.M. relies on lexical routes of word familiarity. Meanings and word meanings. Therefore, nonsense words are too foreign to her ability to understand. H.M.’s ability to read nonwords was tested by 50 stimuli, 25 word and 25 nonword. The stimuli were only separated by one letter. street : road. H.M. had to correctly read every word. She only managed to correctly read 9 non-words (Temple & Marshall 1983). H.M. relies heavily on her lexical pathway, so memorization is essential to her reading skills. When asked about her ability to remember new words and help with reading, she stated that it was the only way she could do it. H.M. was said to be “at minimum average intelligence and above average vocabulary”, since dyslexics do not lack intelligence (Temple & Marshall. 1983).
The two main types of phonological dyslexia errors are derivational and visual. H.M. said that her most common reading errors are both visual and derivational. A derivational mistake is when the subject’s errors are rooted from the same root of the stimuli. While a visual error is when the subject is making an error due to a visual similarity with the stimuli. H.M. was presented with 346 words. 299 and 92 (84%) were correctly read. There were several errors present, both being derivational (24%) and visual (41%) (Temple & Marshall, 1983).
H.M. is symptomatic of phonologically dyslexics. Conclusion The dual route theory can be used to base case studies like H.M. The ability to explain skillful reading and its components is key in identifying the root causes of dyslexia. It is important for you to know that there will be multiple components of the dual route model involved in most cases. H.M. might experience multiple symptoms, depending on which component of the dual-route model she is using.
Dual-route theory and other theories can help to better understand dyslexia. This is because it provides a standard framework to which various diagnoses can be compared. There is still a great deal of research that needs to be done to extend current knowledge on the causes, effects, identification, characteristics, and treatments/interventions for dyslexia. There are many skill tests available to help diagnose dyslexics. With more skills being developed, accuracy will increase. Although theories and models are highly effective in explaining situations, more research on the relationship between individuality symptoms and dyslexia will help us to better diagnose and treat these patients.
Temple, C., & Marshall, J. (1983). Study of developmental phonological disorder. British Journal Of Psychology, 74(4), 517-533. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1983.tb01883.
Wagner, R. (1973). 5. Rudolf Berlin: The originator of dyslexia. The Orton Society Bulletin recently published a study which looked at the dynamics of the organization’s membership. Analysis of the data revealed that the majority of members were female, with the majority of them being between the ages of 18 and 24. Furthermore, the average length of membership was found to be around five years. These findings suggest that the Orton Society is mostly comprised of young women who are committed to the organization over the long-term.
Wu, D. (2002). The Third Route to Reading? Implications of Phonological Dyslexia. Neurocase, 8(4), 274-293. doi: 10.1093/neucas/8.4.274
Ziegler, J., Caste