Table of Contents
Original: Machine Learning
Paraphrased: Artificial Intelligence
A team sport of skill, tactics, and intermittent high intensity, football is often referred to as football (Andrews&Itsiopoulos (2016)). Football was a game involving strength, speed, skill, and endurance. The amount of food, drinks, and when they are consumed can all have an effect on these factors. Athletes have to put the same effort as competitors and during practice to ensure that they are properly fuelled. Poor performance can be caused by players who neglect to eat properly. Football players need to eat enough carbohydrates.
How a player eats can impact how they are able to handle these demands. The brain is a key component of fatigue. Strategies that target central fatigue can be used to sustain performance, particularly in the latter stages of the game, when function declines and can lead to injury. (Maughan 2006). Good nutrition habits are key to ensuring that football players stay healthy and avoid injury. Foods should be chosen that are conducive to intense training and maximize match performance. The way a player eats or drinks during a match can have an impact on the outcome. It will reduce fatigue and allow players to use their tactical and physical skills. The best way to speed up recovery is to consume fluids immediately after a training session or game. A nutrition plan should be developed for each player to meet their specific nutritional needs (Maughan (2006)
According to Bangsbo (2014), football is a stochastic and acyclical event that alternates with high-intensity activity. Active play contributes approximately 90 minutes to the match, which suggests that aerobic glycolysis is the primary source of energy (about 90%). Stolen et. al. 2005). Players must be able to maintain performance during high-intensity intermittent or repeated bouts. 2005).
Bangsbo (2014) said that the researcher had estimated that an average match would consume 16 kilocalories per min. That’s equivalent to 1400 kcal during a 90-minute match. For elite players, 2000 kcal could have been consumed over the match’s duration (Bangsbo (2014)).
Fatigue is a loss of muscle work. It’s usually experienced towards the end. Intensity and duration of exercise increase, so fatigue may develop (Hargreaves 2000). In football, fatigue is an observable problem that can be caused by high levels of competition and training. This was especially true during the anaerobic phase of matches (Bangsbo (2006)).
The study was done to find out the diet habits of footballers. This article was written to examine the dietary habits of male footballers from Universiti Teknologi MARA Football Club. This study will give you the current nutrient intake and make recommendations for improving your diet.
General ObjectivesThe study’s main objective was to determine the dietary intake of football players at Universiti Teknologi MARA FC (UiTMFC). This Nutrient Intake Analysis was performed among football players from Universiti Teknologi Football Club (UiTMFC).
To analyse the nutrient consumption of a footballer at Universiti Teknologi (UiTM) FC. To assess and compare the nutrient needs of a footballer at Universiti Teknologi Malaysian Football Club (UiTMFC).
Participants.Diet Diary Record was used for the Nutrient Intake analysis of Universiti Teknologi MARA Football Club’s (UiTMFC) football player. Participants were asked to bring home a Diet Diary Record and record their 3 day diet intake. This includes 2 days during the week and 1 day on weekends.
InstrumentsThe Diet Diary booklet had guidelines about recording preparation of food and its serving size. There were also instructions on how participants should record their diet intake. Participants were instructed to keep track of time, place, food, drinks, and portion sizes. The study involved 30 sets of Diet Diary Record books. Only 11 (37%) participants returned the book. Unsufficient data had led to the exclusion of one Diet Diary Record Booklet.
Data Analysis. Diet Plus Software was used to analyze the nutrition data for this Diet Diary Record. The system’s database contains nutrition information on 853 food products based off the Nutrient composition of Malaysian foods. This analysis was based on dietary energy. Total carbohydrates, protein and fat were all included.
Below are graphs that show the relationship between the nutrient intakes of Universiti Teknologi MARA Football Club players and their Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The analysis showed that the football player had 16% more energy than the recommended intake (2849 Kcal +-691.09). This was due to a greater intake of protein (118g +-33.27) and fat (97g+- 38.99), which were both 90% higher than what was recommended. However, the consumption of carbohydrate (373g+- 92.67), was 12% lower than that recommended. According to RBI, the intake for refined sugar (150g+- 119.37), was 64% greater than that recommended. The recommendation recommended a fiber intake of 18g +- 4.4, which was 40% lower than the recommended.
Vitamin B1 (2.6mg+– 0.61) was 67% greater than RNI. Vitamin B2 (1.27mg+– 0.85) is 108% higher. Vitamin B3 (20mg+-6.56) is 25% higher. Vitamin B3 (20mg+-6.6) was 25% more than RNI. Vitamin B3 (20mg+-6.8) was 25% lower than RNI. Vitamin B3 (20mg+-6.8) was 25% above RNI. Vitamin A (1.04mg+988.23). It was 73% less than RNI) was 73%
It was determined that UiTMFC athletes have a higher energy intake than the Ministry of Health/ RBI. This is based on data about macronutrient intakes. The athletes consumed more macronutrients that were required by RBI guidelines than they did. These include sugars, protein, and fat. The athletes didn’t meet the RNI requirement for total carbohydrate or fiber intake, according to data.
Williams et.al. (2015) recommend that diets high in carbohydrates be included to improve muscle glycogen levels. There has been little research that suggests high-carbohydrate diets can improve and optimize football performance. Ali et al., (2007) and Foskett et al., (2008) had found that there were increased in sprinting and shooting performance from a player who ingested carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks. Sougilis and colleagues (2013) found an increase in the total distance for players who ate a high-carbohydrate diet of 1.3km.
Burke et. al. (2006) reported that players can’t train if their carbohydrate stores are not sufficient to provide the required energy for training. This could affect the player’s ability to play and training. This was due to the fact, that a low CHO diet can quickly cause a rapid depletion of carbohydrates and make it impossible for muscles to supply the ATP required for high-demand match-play training and coaching (Bangsbo et.al.2006). A low total carbohydrate intake could lead to a lower level of insulin. This may encourage a higher level of circulating omega-3 fatty acids. These fatty acids are essential for the production and oxidation of ketonebodies.
Manninen (2004) suggested that the body would increase fat oxidation in order to compensate for a reduced carbohydrate supply. Adam-Perrot et al., (2006) reported that low-carbohydrate diets enhanced lean body mass loss, increased urinary calcium loss, increased plasma homocysteine levels, and increased low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
Amino acid was a form protein that is used to build hormones and enzymes. They regulate metabolism and other functions of the body (Wolfe 2006. The adaptations to exercise are also influenced by protein. This includes the maintenance and repair of tissues and the prevention of protein breakdown. In extreme cases, like starvation, where fats and glycogen are extremely depleted, amino acids metabolism also provides a fuel source (Williams 2012).
A small amount (about 20-25 grams) of high quality protein such as leucine can enhance protein synthesis. It also promotes muscle tissue remodeling, which is an important part in the process of adaptation to the training environment (Maughan-Shireffs 2007). Highton et al. (2013) reported that the decrease in performance at the end a match may be less if you consume both carbohydrate and protein together. But high levels of protein intake have been linked with osteoporosis. A high intake of protein can increase urinary calcium excretion.
Two potential adverse consequences can result from this (Miller and co., 2014). Although studies have shown that increased protein intake can lead to increased bone reabsorption, there was not enough evidence to support limiting intake to prevent bone loss.
Fat is an essential nutrient that aids in body functions such as the preservation of body heat, cushioning of vital organs and transportation and storage fat-soluble vitamins. It also provides valuable energy storage and supply (Kreider and al. 2010). Although fat is not the main source of energy for football, it was vital during match play and low-intensity training periods. (2006).
Long-term intake of high levels of fat can lead to a metabolic adaptation that favors fat oxidation during rest and exercise at certain intensities. High-fat diets may also lead to ketosis. Ketosis is when fats are converted into energy from glucose. Ketosis is a condition that causes muscle to be rapidly effected and slows down metabolism (White et.al., 2007). Heart disease is the most serious risk from high-fat diets. The American Heart Association (1961) states that a high-fat diet can significantly increase cholesterol, which in turn increases your risk of developing heart disease.
Refined sugar intake has been linked to obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and other health issues (Chiu, et al. 2011, 2011). According to Sacks et.al. (2014), eating high-glycemic foods may lead to insulin resistance. Added sugars can increase calories and lead to obesity. The National Academy of Sciences reported that individuals who consume too much added sugar could not be getting enough of the micronutrients they need, which can have negative health effects.
According to the Malaysian Dietary Guidelines 2010, Malaysians should eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day. It is recommended that you consume at least three servings of vegetables each day and at most two servings of fruits.
Vegetables were also well-known for their high levels of dietary fibers. Hypervitaminosis can also be caused by excessive vitamin intake. Vitamins may alter the function of other nutrients, making them more toxic than drugs. Hypervitaminosis is caused by excessive vitamin supplement intake.
To maintain and improve their training results, athletes must consume adequate energy during high intensity training sessions. A low energy supply can cause unwanted muscle mass loss and sub-optimal bones density. This could lead to fatigue, injury and an inability to adapt and a longer recovery time.
The training diet had two main goals: to support athletes’ nutritional health and prevent injury, and to maximize the metabolic and functional adaptations of a program of exercise that prepares them to perform better at their event.
However, the study found that while athletes were able to meet the nutritional requirements of their diets, some of them did not achieve these goals. Poor knowledge and skills in cooking are common problems. Aside from this, they made poor choices when dining out and shopping for food. It is difficult to have the time and energy to consume healthy foods when you live a busy life. We conclude that athletes may be less nutrient-dense if they are not well-informed about nutrition and under the supervision of UiTM FC managers.