American Nurse Association (2005) defines nursing to be “the protection, optimization, and prevention of health. It also includes the prevention and treatment of illness, injury and disease, as well as the facilitation of recovery, relief of suffering, diagnosis and treatments of human responses, and advocacy on behalf of individuals and families.
Metaparadigm nursing is a concept that includes the person, health and environment, as well as nursing. When it comes to patient-care, these four areas are of primary importance.
The metaparadigm for nurse theory begins with the word person. It includes not only the patient but also his or her family and friends, as well as groups, communities, populations, and even the community. These social relationships and connections give meaning and hope to the life of a patient, providing them with strength and hope.
The second component is health. Health is a term that refers to a person’s health and ability to access healthcare. The health of a person includes physical, mental, emotional, and psychological wellness. A nurse empowers the patient to take charge of their health and to live in optimal health.
Third, there is the environment. This includes all things that are around a patient that can influence their illness and recovery. The environment is composed by a wide range of external and internal factors, including culture, religious affiliations (Nurse group, n.d.), financial condition, geography, physical and emotional state, and financial situation. The patient should be in an environment which is conducive to their holistic recovery.
Nursing is the final metaparadigm in nursing theory. Nursing is the term used to describe all of the skills an individual needs to acquire in order to become a registered nurse. These skills include medical knowledge, technical abilities, leadership skills, communication skills, teaching skills, physical agility and practical nursing care. In order to demonstrate compassion, nurses must also apply these skills. The health of the patient will suffer if there is no empathy.
To become a fully-rounded nurse, the individual must be able to combine all of these aspects. The best care is provided by a nurse who treats a patient holistically, not as an illness.
Components a Metaparadigm for NursingPatients continually change within a constantly evolving environment. The nurse must be familiar with four major concepts, which are part of a nursing theory and philosophy. These four concepts are a part of a metaparadigm for nursing that includes person, health and environment (Blais & Hayes 2016, p.101). These four areas are the main focus of patient care and are interrelated. They are also interdependent.
First, the person or the client is the term used to describe the patient for whom an nurse cares and who receives the nursing services. The patient’s family and friends are also included in this. As well as their health needs, a patient’s social and spiritual needs are taken into account. Nursing professionals must care for their patients, as well as the networks that help them heal. The health of a person can be affected by their interactions with others. Each person is unique and has their own values and beliefs. They should be treated with dignity and respect. Nurses are to be open-minded, and not to judge or bias patients based on their religion, beliefs, or other differences. Privacy of the patient must be respected at all times. We must listen and allow the patient to share their concerns and feelings in order to establish trust. As nurses, we make sure that the patient knows our focus is on their health.
The environment is the second element of the Metaparadigm. The environment includes all the things around the patient which may have an impact on their health and recovery. A therapeutic environment has a direct impact on the patient, healthcare staff and their health. Safety, health and support can improve patient outcomes and promote a healing effect. Noise, space and lighting in the patient environment, as well as the smell around it, can affect their health. By making subtle changes, you can improve the environment for your patient. A therapeutic setting will enhance healing for the patients, and improve their overall experience of healthcare. The patient’s physical or mental health can be affected by external or internal factors. These include cultural, personal, geographical, financial, religious, and social factors. A patient’s recovery depends on an environment which is pleasant to them, offers comfort and peace, as well as a holistic, helpful atmosphere that promotes healing and health. We as nurses must strive to create the best environment possible. We may ask friends and family to give the patient some privacy and to focus on relaxation and rest. Some patients need to be closer to the nurse station or a full time sitter may be required to ensure their safety. Others may need a bariatric or special toilet. Social workers and clergy may be needed to help patients. Patients often come from environments with poor hygiene, which can lead to health problems and illness. Patients’ health improves when they enter a clean hospital environment. Patients and their families can be educated about the effects of unsanitary environments and conditions on their health.
Third element of metaparadigm, health is primary factor to patient care. Healthcare is focused on the restoration and maintenance health. The health of the patient and their overall well-being is closely related. Health care services are available to anyone, regardless of their age, income, location, or socioeconomic status. In addition, the genetic makeup of a person can influence their health. This includes how the patient copes with stress. It is important to monitor and evaluate the health of patients on a regular schedule. This can help prevent future illness, save time and money and reduce resources. In order to maintain good health, nurses encourage their patients to take charge of their health. Healthcare today is focused on maintaining good health. In order to live a healthier lifestyle, doctors encourage patients to reduce stress, start a fitness regimen, quit smoking and drink less alcohol.
Nursing is the last component of metaparadigm. This element includes nursing skills, knowledge of medicine, technology, professional judgments, communication and critical thinking. The role of nurses is to build positive relationships and trust with their patient, while providing holistic care. We as nursing professionals must be compassionate and empathic to help and encourage our patients’ recovery. The nurses have a relationship with their patient and create a caring and safe environment to promote healing. This component is based on high standards in service, which promote patient well-being and healing while also being advocates for patients. Nurses have a duty to inform and educate their patient about habits and procedures which will help them live a healthier life. Nurses help prevent future illness by treating existing illnesses and providing patient care, education, and treatment.
The metaparadigm comes from a full understanding of all four concepts. This forces nurses into a position of providing a comprehensive, well-rounded care during the treatment phase and recovery stage. Utilizing these four components, the patient will receive the best treatment possible that will allow him to recover faster. It is important to maintain high standards and be consistent when caring for patients. This will ensure that all patient experiences result in a positive, healthy outcome.