Table of Contents
This is the beginning
Chemicals are required
No, the words “procedures” and “guidelines” are not interchangeable. Procedures are specific instructions that must be followed in order to complete a task or process. Guidelines, on the other hand, are general recommendations that can be followed but may be flexible depending on the situation.
Part A: Synthesis Of Methyl Salicylate
Part B: Synthesis Of Orange
Carboxylic acid Alcohol Ester Fragance
Part C Synthesis Strawberry
Carboxylic acid Alcohol Ester Fragrance
This is an introductory statement.
Carboxylic acids are the basis of esters. Carboxylic acid is composed of the -COOH atom. Hydrocarbon groups of one kind replace hydrogen in ester. It can be either an alkyl (methyl, ethyl) or one that contains a benzene rings (phenyl). These esters, which are low in molecular weight, are used as fragrances. The reaction of acid anhydrides, alkylhalides, and alcohols can yield esters. (Byju’s, May 31, 2016)
The boiling point of small esters is almost identical to that of aldehydes and ketones with the same number carbon atoms. Polar molecules include aldehydes as well as ketones. Because they are polar molecules, they exhibit dipole-dipole interactions as well as Van der Waals forces. They do not form hydrogen bonds so their boiling point does not reach the same level as acid. The small esters, although easily soluble with water, have a lower solubility due to their shorter chains. Although esters cannot form hydrogen bonds with themselves, their hydrogen bonds with water molecules is what makes them so soluble. Jim Clark 2004. ObjectiveTo synthesize the esters that give fruit their distinctive flavours.
Apparatus necessary Water bath. Test tubes. Droppers
Chemicals required Salicylic Acid, methyl Alcohol, Concentrated Sulphuric Acid, Acetic Acid, Napropyl Alcohol, Octyl Alkohol, Butyric acid, n -Butyl Alcohol, Acetic Acid, Acetic Acid, Acetic acid, Acetic acid, Acetic acid, Acetic acid, Acetic acid, Acetic acid, acetic, n -butyl, Octylalcool n-butyl n-butylalcool, n-butyl, n-butyl n-butyl n-butyl n-butyl n-butyl n-butyle alcohol n-butyl n-propyl n-butyl n-butyl n-butyl n-butyl n-propyl n-propyl n-butyl-butylen-butyl-butylen
Procedures Part 1 : Synthesis Of Methyl Salicylate
Weighed in at 0.5g Salicylic Acid
The salicylic and methyl acids were transferred to another large, dry test tube. A further 1.5ml was then added.
After adding 3 to 4 drops of concentrated hydrogen sulphur to the mixture, I mixed the mixture with my fingers.
To complete the reaction the mixture was put in a hot water bath (90В°C).
Once the reaction has been completed, the test tube was taken out of the water bath and allowed it to cool.
After the tube had cooled, take a few moments to sniff the fumes. You can smell wintergreen’s minty fragrance.
If the smell is not clear, you can pour the contents into a glass with hot water or sodium carbate solution. Hot water or sodiumcarbonate solution should make the methyl salicylate smell strong.
The observation was made.
Part B: Synthesis OrangeCarboxylic acids Alcohol Ester FraganceAcetic octyl-acetate Orange
To make n-octylacetate, you need to add 6 drops of octylalcool in a 10mL clean test tube.
2 drops glacial acetic acids were added.
A drop of concentrated sulfuric Acid was added to the tube. After the contents were mixed, the tube was placed in the boiling-water bath for three minutes.
After heating has completed, remove the testtube from the water bath. Add 20 drops to the contents of your test tube. The test tubes were shaken.
Part C : Synthesis StrawberryCarboxylic acid FragranceButyric acids Ethyl Ethyl Butyrate Strawberry
You can prepare ethylbutyrate by placing 6 drops of ethylalcool in a dry, 10mL tube.
2 drops of butyric-acid were added with care.
The tube was filled with 1 drop of concentrated sulfuric acid. After stirring the contents, the test tube was put in boiling water for 3 minutes. The heating process was completed. After the tube had been removed from the bath, 20 drops of water were added. Mix the ingredients together and stir. ResultsOdour/smell derived from reactions between (Joseph Hiltner 2012):
Wintergreen Odour and Salicylic acid/Methyl Alcohol
Octyl Alcohol and Acetic Acid – Orange Odor
Strawberry Odour, Ethyl Alkohol and Butyric Acid